Country Study
3 of 167Prevalence Index Rank


  • 256,800 Estimate number living in Modern Slavery
  • 1.65% Estimate percentage of population living in Modern Slavery
  • 41.51/100 Vulnerability to Modern Slavery
  • CCC Government Response Rating
  • 15,578,000 Population
  • $3,263 GDP (PPP)


How many people are in modern slavery in Cambodia?

Cambodia is a source and destination for exploitation of men, women and children in all forms of modern slavery, including forced labour, debt bondage and forced marriage. The 2016 Global Slavery Index estimates 256,800 people or 1.65% of the total population live in conditions of modern slavery in Cambodia. This is based on a random-sample, nationallyrepresentative survey undertaken in 2015, that sought to identify instances of both forced marriage and forced labour within the general population (survey conducted in Khmer language).

Country Findings of Prevalence


Estimate number enslaved

Forced marriage

Walk Free survey results suggest some 55,800 people are victims of forced marriage in Cambodia (22 percent of the estimated 256,800 people in modern slavery in Cambodia).

A literature review found no available research on forced marriage, highlighting the need for further investigation. Some limited figures are available on the prevalence of early marriages. In 2014, UNICEF reported 18 percent of Cambodian women marry under the age of 18.[1] Article 5 of the Law on Marriage and Family (1989) allows for the marriage of children upon the consent of their parents or guardians if the girl becomes pregnant.[2] While this may increase the risk of girls being forced to marry, and girls being forced to marry if they fall pregnant through rape, there is insufficient data to suggest this is widespread. NGOs report early marriage among teens aged 14 to 17 is common in certain ethnic groups and geographical locations, particularly the north-east; however, these unions are commonly performed with the consent of the children.[3]

Trafficking for marriage

The growing demand for foreign brides in China has created an emerging market for traffickers in the region. Cambodian women, eager to escape impoverished lives in rural villages, are entering brokered marriages to Chinese men in the hope of a more lucrative life. In reality, many women find themselves deceived about their new living conditions, with many resettled in rural China[4] forced to work on farms or as domestic helpers, with some experiencing abuse at the hands of their husbands.[5] Other women are recruited for factory jobs and find themselves forced into marriage.[6] Victims rescued in the past 18 months have mostly originated from Kampong Cham, Kampong Thom and Kandal provinces.[7] Cambodian women are also forced into marriage to Korean and Taiwanese men,[8] some of whom are subsequently forced into prostitution.[9] No research has been conducted on the extent of this emerging trafficking trend though in 2015 NGOs were routinely responding to the needs of victims.

Forced labour

Cambodian men, often highly transient because of their need to travel to secure employment, are subjected to forced labour on fishing vessels in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia.[10] In 2013, when significant media exposure and international pressure brought this issue to global attention, ILO figures suggested 9 percent of Cambodian fishers were subject to forced labour,[11] with Cambodians accounting for 40 percent of fishers across four major Thai ports. To date, Cambodian victims of forced labour on fishing vessels continue to be repatriated, including a group of 59 trafficked fishermen who experienced slave-like conditions on Thai vessels fishing in Indonesian waters in 2015.[12]

Out of the estimated 201,000 people in forced labour, the Walk Free survey found an estimated 60 percent of victims of forced labour were in the manufacturing sector, some of whom may have been employed in the apparel sector.

In 2014, the Cambodian apparel industry exported US$5.7 billion worth of goods, roughly one-third of Cambodia's GDP.[13] The sector employs an estimated 600,000—700,000 garment workers, nearly 4 percent of Cambodia's population, and indirectly supports many millions more family members.[14] The apparel sector draws a large proportion of its workers from rural areas— the 2015 Cambodia Apparel Workers Survey revealed 97 percent of workers moved to Phnom Penh for their job.[15] Garment workers producing for international apparel brands experience high levels of serious labour rights abuses—conditions which sometimes amount to modern slavery. Workers continue to experience forced and excessive overtime as a result of factory practices and pressure from actors along the supply chain.[16] Workers unable or unwilling to perform overtime are subject to dismissal, wage reductions and punitive transfers from a monthly wage to a piece-rate wage where income is dependent on the number of garments individuals produce.[17] Poor wages, poor health and safety conditions, excessive noise, poor air quality, unsanitary environments and employer abuse are common. In some smaller factories that operate as subcontractors for exportoriented factories, workers are employed as casual workers or on short-term contracts that allow employers to easily dismiss employees and intimidate workers against speaking out about abuse for fear their contract will not be reviewed.[18]

Increasing demand for cheap domestic workers in private homes in the Middle East, Malaysia and Singapore, coupled with the possibility of earning up to three times the salary than at that at home, is encouraging Cambodian women to travel abroad, often through informal channels, for employment as maids, nannies and carers. In 2011, the government placed a moratorium on sending maids to Malaysia amid reports of serious abuse; however, workers continue to travel there through informal channels. In 2015, exploited Cambodian domestic workers continued to be repatriated from Malaysia,[19] with many suffering serious mental health issues upon return.[20] Government estimates suggest 8,000 domestic workers remain employed in Malaysia.[21] Despite the governments of Cambodia and Qatar signing a MoU in 2011 to begin sending Cambodian workers to the Gulf state, in 2015 workers were still prevented from travelling to Qatar amid concerns of a 'high risk' of sexual abuse, low wages and harsh laws.[22] There is also demand for domestic workers within homes in Phnom Penh.[23] Walk Free survey data revealed that of an estimated total of 201,000 people in forced labour, five percent were exploited in the domestic service sector.

Commercial sexual exploitation

Cambodia was renowned as a sex tourism destination in the 1990s and this legacy is still prevalent today with women and girls trafficked within the thriving sex industry in Cambodia's major cities.[24] Despite significant attempts to curb CSE, NGOs report the industry has been pushed underground and sex offenders are still able to purchase sex with children through an intermediary rather than more overt selling of sex in brothels.[25] Boys and young men are also vulnerable to sexual exploitation, with many entering the massage industry due to a lack of training and skills.[26] The presence of the sex tourism industry has led to the sexual exploitation of street children. The majority of street children who have been identified as victims of this abuse are boys, with many citing foreign nationals as the perpetrators. Despite this, research suggests that both Cambodian men, and men from neighbouring Asian countries are perhaps larger but less visible abusers of children in the sex industry.[27]

Despite existing literature giving evidence of CSE cases in Cambodia, the Walk Free survey did not identify any victims in this sector. The survey result may not indicate an absence of cases but possibly a lack of willingness to self-identify or report this issue. We will continue to work with experts to identify the most robust ways to ensure the issue of sexual exploitation is fully accounted for in our survey results in future.

Forced begging

Cambodian children are exploited as beggars in Cambodian cities and surrounding tourist hot spots like Angkor Wat, as well as abroad in Thailand and Vietnam. There is limited data indicating the extent of children trafficked into this situation; however, estimates from Friends International research suggest as many as 80 percent of child beggars in Thailand are Cambodian.[28]

Orphanage tourism

In 2011, UNICEF reported a 75 percent increase in the number of orphanages established in Cambodia between 2005 and 2010.[29] Funding from foreign donors coupled with increasing numbers of tourists attempting to add value to their vacations by volunteering at orphanages has driven the increase in residential care facilities. Poverty, particularly the inability of some parents to provide adequate living conditions or education for their children, and in some sinister cases, the opportunity to profit from the sale of their children into care, supplies this trend. When in care, some children are forced to perform dances for tourists, distribute flyers or perform farm work to raise sufficient funds for their maintenance.[30] In 2016, NGOs continue to report a high number of residential care facilities being used as tourist attractions.[31]

Walk Free Foundation 2015 survey data

Number % % male victims % female victims
Forced labour 201,000 78 38 62
Forced marriage 55,800 22 5 95
Modern slavery total 256,800 100 31 69
Forced labour by sector of exploitation %
Domestic work 5
Construction 11
Manufacturing 60
Other manufacturing 0
Farming 18
Sex Industry 0
Drug production 0
Retail sector 2
Other 3
DK 1
Refused 1
Total 100*
* Due to rounding, some totals may not correspond with the sum of the separate figures.

Uzbekistan is the world’s sixth largest producer of cotton. During the annual cotton harvest, citizens are subjected to statesanctioned forced labour. Monitoring by international organisations has meant the government has begun to take steps to improve the situation, however, reports from the 2015 harvest estimate that over one million people were forced to work.

Photo credit, Simon Buxton/Anti-Slavery International


What factors explain or predict the prevalence of modern slavery in Cambodia?

The mass genocide of an estimated 2.2—2.8 million people under the Khmer Rouge regime of 1975—1979 dramatically shaped the current demographics of Cambodia. More than 50 percent of the population are under 25,[32] placing immense strain on the national economy to provide employment opportunities for the young burgeoning workforce.[33]

Average Vulnerability Score


CountryCivil & Political ProtectionsSocial, Health, & Economic RightsPersonal SecurityRefugees & ConflictMean

Cambodia is a low-income country plagued by high levels of poverty; with more than 40 percent of the population living on less than US$2 per day.[34] In 2014, almost 80 percent of the country's population lived in rural areas and suffered comparably high rates of poverty.[35] Cambodians living in rural areas are susceptible to land grabbing in the form of economic land concessions by large companies. Between 2003 and 2013, 2.2 million hectares of land was seized affecting 420,000 Cambodians, 300,000 of which were forcibly evicted.[36] The loss of land and, therefore, livelihood, coupled with few employment opportunities in rural regions, is increasingly driving irregular and uninformed internal and cross-border migration. The economic desperation of many migrants, coupled with limited education or awareness of human trafficking, creates ideal conditions for recruitment agents and labour brokers to trap people into situations of debt bondage or offer lucrative jobs that frequently result in exploitation.

As tourism in Cambodia continues to boom—increasing from only 700,000 visitors in 2003 to more than 4.5 million in 2014[37] —the vulnerability of children to sex tourists and an increasing phenomenon of orphanage tourism increases the risk of children being exploited at the hands of international visitors. Despite ongoing efforts to eliminate the child sex industry, men from other Asian nations, the USA, Australia, South Africa and Europe continue to engage in child sex tourism in Cambodia.[38]

Corruption in Cambodia continues to plague anti-trafficking efforts, particularly the prosecution of perpetrators and the acceptance of bribes by officials. Transparency International found Cambodia to be the most corrupt country of the ten ASEAN states.[39] Government officials continue to avoid investigation and prosecution for extensive human rights abuses including torture and assassinations.[40] In 2015, no government employees complicit in trafficking were prosecuted, and Phnom Penh's former anti-trafficking police chief convicted for human trafficking in 2011 had his sentence overturned.[41] Protests by labour rights unions in early 2014 demanding a minimum wage of US$177 per month were suppressed, and the leaders involved were prosecuted.[42] Such corruption can play a central role in both facilitating and furthering the prevalence of human trafficking in the country.

Significant discrimination against girls and women persists, with traditional gender roles championed in the school curriculum. Chbab Srey - a customary code of what respectable women say and do - continues to be taught to students.[43] The code promotes ideas that women bring honour to and serve their husband, maintain virginity before marriage and remain monogamous thereafter, to refrain from drawing attention to themselves, to remain inside the home at night and to not leave the home without permission. The observance of these rules has significant implications for female victims of trafficking - ideas of subservience to men and shame for their conduct often restrict victims from coming forward to report abuse, and societal stigma for breaching cultural codes challenges successful reintegration of victims.[44]

Phnom Penh 2014. In this image, Special Forces soldiers assault non-profit employees observing a violent stand-off between the military and striking garment workers.

Photo Credit, Luc Forsyth

From the 'Less than Human' series. A large cargo boat is seen in Songkla Port, Thailand. 09/03/2014. Photographer Chris Kelly worked undercover to expose the link between prawns being sold in big name supermarkets, and the slaves who live and work on Thai fishing boats miles out to sea.

Photo credit, Chris Kelly

Government Response

How is the Cambodia Government tackling modern slavery?

The Government of Cambodia is making progress in combating trafficking. However this progress has been slow, and there are many challenges ahead. In 2014, the government released a five-year National Plan of Action (NPA) (2014—2018) devised by the National Committee for Counter Trafficking (NCCT)[45] in collaboration with USAID and both international and national NGOs. This plan was designed to replace the 2011—2013 NPA, which was never successfully implemented.[46] The NCCT has stated that it has requested US$25,000 for funding from the Cambodia Government but hopes that the majority of funding will be provided by the partnered NGOs and INGOs.[47] The plan calls for increased government resources to combat trafficking, policy reform to aid the prosecution process and greater involvement at the regional and local levels.[48] Although the plan holds promise for improving the country's stance on trafficking in persons, it has yet to be implemented.[49]

Government Response Rating


The Cambodian Government has been a member of the Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Trafficking (COMMIT), of which UNIAP is secretariat, since its foundation in 2004.[50] COMMIT is run by task forces that are the decisions makers for all policy and programming relating to trafficking within their country.[51] At the fourth inter-ministerial meeting of COMMIT early in 2015, Cambodia pledged to eradicate any situation that could cause a person to be exploited.[52] Over the past five years, the government has been developing nationwide guidelines relating to the identification of victims within vulnerable populations of society. These guidelines have been tested in five provinces throughout the country but are yet to be finalised.[53]

The victim response and support network in Cambodia relies heavily on NGOs who provide services and use methods based on their particular missions and capacities. This creates a patchwork of response mechanisms throughout the country with no comprehensive unified national institutional response. Due to the ever-changing nature of the NGO responses, victims may be missing out on critical support due to a lack of awareness of services available.[54]

Within the government, some ministries are involved in the human trafficking response, including the Ministry of Interior (MOI), Labour and Vocational Training (MOLVT), Women's Affairs (MOWA), NCCT and Social Affairs, Veteran and Youth Rehabilitation (MOSVY). Working with these ministries are workforces, task forces and committees. Although the extensive involvement of government agencies demonstrates that government is making a concerted effort to combat trafficking, it has also had the unintended consequence of creating undefined boundaries of responsibility of the actors involved. This, in turn, has resulted in discrepancies within services provided to victims, with some areas being overly resourced while other areas are completely lacking resources. Further, despite a concerted effort at the national level, implementation at the local level is largely lacking support. Law enforcement task forces lack the resources and training necessary to provide an effective response to trafficking. Similarly, although 2008 and 2009 saw the introduction of the Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation and the renewed Penal Code, local practitioners lack the capacity to effectively enforce them.[55]

Many victims in Cambodia do not receive adequate services. The government is yet to develop a policy or practice that would allow NGOs to take children into care, without risk of liability and court action. If guardians of children refuse to allow their child to attend a shelter, the children are often returned to their homes where they may face a high risk of re-trafficking.

Male victims, in particular, lack sufficient shelter and associated services. Foreign victims located in Cambodia are usually repatriated to their home country and provided no legal alternative regarding any hardship or risk they faced on return. Similarly, Cambodian victims identified abroad lacked access to government assistance particularly if located in countries that lack Cambodian representation. These victims were largely forced to rely on support from NGOs and INGOs.[56]

The Cambodian Government is obligated under international law to ensure that the rights of workers are respected and redress mechanisms are available. However, despite thousands of factory inspections between 2010 and 2013, only ten fines were imposed on factories violating labour regulations.[57]

In October 2015, prompted by years of ongoing violent protests by garment workers and international pressure by rights groups, the government raised the minimum wage for workers in the apparel industry to US$140 a month.[58]

Though this goes some way to meeting worker demands, greater inspections and increased punishments for perpetrating employers must occur.

Rajshahi, Bangladesh, January 2013. Dipa is 13 years old and has been engaged in prostitution for five months. She used to go to school, but stopped in class three after her family could no longer afford to send her. Her two sisters are also engaged in prostitution, but clients prefer to visit Dipa as she is the youngest of the three. She gets between four or five clients and earns about 1,200 Taka (US$15) a day.

Photo credit, Pep Bonet/ NOOR


What do we recommend


  • Increase specialist human trafficking support staff at embassies where high numbers of Cambodian victims have been identified, particularly in China, Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam. Ensure that embassies/consulates have sufficient budgets to provide immediate emergency care, and establish shelter options for exploited Cambodians to recuperate while their situation is resolved (particularly pertinent for the Royal Cambodian Embassy to Thailand, which is understaffed and unable to address the needs of the volume of Cambodian's in need).
  • Ensure embassy staff have sufficient training to provide support to victims of modern slavery and to collaborate with NGOs (both regional and local) to provide for the voluntary return of victims.
  • Sign a MoU between Cambodia and China to combat trafficking for marriage in China. This MoU should define trafficking to reduce the definitional discrepancy between both countries when handling these cases.
  • Regulate recruitment agencies and standardise information provided to overseas job seekers.
  • Increase training for police officers in the identification of victims and handling of trafficking cases. Provide specialised training in technologies designed to identify and track foreign child sex offenders travelling to Cambodia.
  • Continue and upscale awareness campaigns to prevent the sexual abuse of children, targeting school teachers, parents, children and tourists.
  • Improve the amount and quality of labour inspections, particularly in the apparel industry, focusing on forced overtime, non-payment of wages and working conditions.
  • Monitor and issue public progress reports on enforcement actions.
  • Discipline or prosecute, where appropriate, law enforcement personnel found complicit in cases of modern slavery.
  • Conduct widespread awareness campaigns on the risks of exploitative work abroad, particularly for men in the fishing sector.


  • Conduct social audits on suppliers identified as high risk.
  • Travel and tourism businesses to adopt child-safe tourism policies.
  • Promote respect for workers' rights in the supply chain, including both direct suppliers and subcontractor factories.


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  2. Just Married, Just a Child: Child Marriage in the Indo-Pacific Region, (Plan International Australia, July 2014), accessed 07/10/15:
  3. Personal communication. 
  4. Chab Dai, 'Coordinating Our Efforts Against Forced Marriage in China', Along the Paths of Justice, August 5, 2015, accessed 07/05/16:
  5. Personal communication. 
  6. Khuon Narim and Simon Henderson, 'Nine Cambodian Women Seek Refuge in China', The Cambodia Daily, November 29, 2014, accessed 09/10/15:
  7. Personal communication. 
  8. Strategic Information Response Network, Mekong Region: Country Datasheets: Human Trafficking, (United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking, 2010), accessed 10/10/15:
  9. Victim Identification Procedures in Cambodia: A Brief Study of Human Trafficking Victim Identification in the Cambodian Context, (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2013, pp. 41- 43, accessed 08/10/15:
  10. Kate Day, (Re)integration of Cambodian Trafficked Men: Trends in Trafficking and Available Aftercare Services, (Hagar International, 2015), p. 4, accessed 08/10/16:
  11. International Labour Organisation, Employment Practices and Working Conditions in Thailand’s Fishing Sector, (ILO Tripartite Action to Protect the Rights of Migrant Workers within and from the Greater Mekong Subregion, 2013), accessed 07/05/16:
  12. Ethan Harfenist and Taing Vida, '59 Trafficked Fishermen Finally Back in Kingdom', The Phnom Penh Post, May 12, 2015, accessed 09/10/15:
  13. Better Factories Cambodia, Better Factories Cambodia: Garment Industry 32nd Compliance Synthesis Report, (International Labour Organisation and International Finance Corporation, 2015), accessed 09/10/15:
  14. Cambodian Ministry of Industry and Handicrafts; Department of Labor Inspectorate, Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training; Better Factories Cambodia, Thirty-first Synthesis Report on Working Conditions in Cambodia’s Garment Sector, (International Labour Organisation, 2014); see also: Better Factories Cambodia: Garment Industry 32nd Compliance Synthesis Report, (nternational Labour Organisation and International Financial Cooperation, June 2015), accessed 09/10/16: 
  15. Aphichoke Kotikula, Milad Pournik, Raymond Robertson, Interwoven: How the Better Work Program Improves Job and Life Quality in the Apparel Sector, (World Bank, 2015), p. 13, accessed 10/10/15:
  16. Better Factories Cambodia, Better Factories Cambodia: Garment Industry 32nd Compliance Synthesis Report (International Labour Organisation and International Finance Corporation, 2015), accessed 10/10/15:
  17. Work Faster or Get Out: Labour Rights Abuses in Cambodia’s Garment Industry, (Human Rights Watch, 2015), accessed 08/10/15:
  18. As above. 
  19. Sen David, 'Six Maids Back from Malaysia', The Phnom Penh Post, August 17, 2015, accessed 09/10/15:
  20. May Titthara and Alice Cuddy, 'The Shackles Of Abuse', The Phnom Penh Post, September 26, 2015, accessed 10/10/15:
  21. As above. 
  22. Chhay Channyda, 'Abuse Fears Holding Up Workers Pact for Qatar', The Phnom Penh Post, September 19, 2015, accessed 11/10/15:
  23. Kristi Eaton, 'Maid in Cambodia’ Highlights Skills, Better Wages,' Womenʼs Enews, January 27, 2015, accessed 12/10/15:
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  25. Donald J. Brewster, 'The Fight Against Child Sex Trafficking in Cambodia is Far from Over,' Washington Post, May 21, 2015, accessed 09/10/15:
  26. Glenn Miles and Heather Blanch, What About Boys? An Initial Exploration of Sexually Exploited Boys in Cambodia September, (Love146, Chab Dai, First Step and The Hard Places Community, 2011), accessed 08/10/16:
  27. Glenn Miles and Heather Blanch, What About Boys? An Initial Exploration of Sexually Exploited Boys in Cambodia September, (Love146, Chab Dai, First Step and The Hard Places Community, 2011), accessed 08/10/16: ; Sex, Abuse and Childhood, (World Vision, 2014), p. 18, accessed 30/03/2016:,
  28. Chaiyot Yongcharoenchai, 'Young Lives for Sale', Bangkok Post, June 29, 2014, accessed 07/10/15:
  29. "Residential Care in Cambodia", UNICEF, 2011, accessed 07/10/15:
  30. The Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation, With the Best Intentions – A Study of Attitudes Towards Residential Care in Cambodia, (Royal Government of Cambodia and UNICEF, 2011), accessed 08/10/15:
  31. Personal communication. 
  32. "The World Factbook: Cambodia", Central Intelligence Agency, accessed 07/10/15:
  33. Victim Identification Procedures in Cambodia: A Brief Study of Human Trafficking Victim Identification in the Cambodian Context, (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2013, pp. 41- 43, accessed 08/10/15:
  34. "Poverty Head Count Ratio at $2 a day (PPP) (% of Population) 2014", World Bank, accessed 07/10/15:
  35. "Rural Population % of Population", World Bank, accessed 07/10/15:
  36. "Children’s Rights Monitoring Office", LICADHO, accessed 07/10/15:
  37. Ministry of Tourism, "Tourisms Statistics Report," (Kingdom of Cambodia, 2015), accessed 07/10/15:
  38. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking In Perso,s ,Trafficking In Persons Report: Cambodia Country Narrative,"(United States Department of State, 2015),
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  40. World Report 2015: Cambodia(Human Rights Watch, 2015), accessed 07/10/15:
  41. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking In Persons, Trafficking In Persons Report: Cambodia Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2015), acccessed 07/10/15:
  42. World Report 2015: Cambodia (Human Rights Watch, 2015), accessed 07/10/15:
  43. Kelly Grace and Sothy Eng, 'There Is No Place for ‘Chbab Srey’ in Cambodian Schools', The Cambodia Daily, June 9, 2015, accessed 08/02/16:
  44. Survivor Experiences and Perceptions of Stigma: Reintegrating into the Community, Working paper: The Butterfuly Longitudinal research Project, (Chab Dai, 2015), accessed 12/12/15:
  45. The National Committee for Counter Trafficking,"National Plan of Action of the National Committee for Counter Trafficking 2014-2018, (Kingdom of Cambodia, 2014), accessed 05/03/16:
  46. Action for Cooperation Against Trafficking in Persons, (United Nations Development Programme, 2014), accessed 03/02/16:
  47. As above. 
  48. Charles Rollet, 'Progress Seen On Trafficking', Phnom Penh Post, August 20, 2015, accessed 03/02/16:
  49. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking In Persons Report: Cambodia Country Narrative,, (United States Department of State, 2015), accessed 03/02/16:
  50. "Commit: The Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative Against Trafficking , (United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking), accessed 03/02/16:
  51. As above. 
  52. Charles Parkinson and Pech Sotheary, 'Pech. Kingdom Backs National Human Trafficking Plan', The Phnom Penh Post, May 1, 2015, accessed 03/02/16:
  53. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking In Persons Report: Cambodia Country Narrative, (United States Department of State, 2015), accessed 03/02/16:
  54. Victim Identification Procedures in Cambodia: A Brief Study of Human Trafficking Victim Identification in the Cambodian Context, (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2013, pp. 41- 43, accessed 08/10/15:
  55. As above. 
  56. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking In Persons Report: Cambodia Country Narrative (United States Department of State, 2015), accessed 03/02/16: 
  57. Work Faster or Get Out: Labour Rights Abuses in Cambodia’s Garment Industry, (Human Rights Watch, 2015), accessed 08/10/15:
  58. 'Cambodia raises minimum wage for garment workers', BBC News, accessed 08/10/15:


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